Amphetamine class drug compounds are chemically classified as phenethylamines. This group includes amphetamine (Adderal®, Dexidrine®) and methamphetamine (Desoxyn®). These compounds are commonly prescribed for attention deficit disorder or narcolepsy. Amphetamines are central nervous stimulants that increase heart rate and blood pressure, and decrease appetite. Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) is another drug prescribed for attention deficit disorder or narcolepsy. While it is a stimulant like the amphetamines, its chemical structure is very different from amphetamines and it will not be detected by an amphetamine screening assay.
Barbiturates were first introduced for medical use in the early 1900s. More than 2,500 barbiturates have been synthesized, and at the height of their popularity, about 50 were marketed for human use. Today, about a dozen are in medical use. Barbiturates produce a wide spectrum of central nervous system depression, from mild sedation to coma, and have been used as sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. The primary differences among many of these products are how fast they produce an effect and how long those effects last. Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort, short, intermediate, and long-acting. Source: September 2007 DEA/OD/ODE
Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that produce central nervous system (CNS) depression and that are most commonly used to treat insomnia and anxiety. There is the potential for dependence on and abuse of benzodiazepines particularly by individuals with a history of multi-substance abuse. Alprazolam (e.g., Xanax), lorazepam (e.g., Ativan), clonazepam (e.g., Klonopin), diazepam (e.g., Valium), and temazepam (e.g., Restoril) are the five most prescribed, as well as the most frequently encountered benzodiazepines on the illicit market. Source: September 2007 DEA/OD/ODE
Cannabis contains chemicals called cannabinoids that are unique to the cannabis plant. Among the cannabinoids synthesized by the plant are cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinolidic acids, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, and several isomers of tetrahydrocannabinol. One of these, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is believed to be responsible for most of the characteristic psychoactive effects of cannabis. Research has resulted in development and marketing of the dronabinol (synthetic THC) product, Marinol®, for the control of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer and to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients. Marinol® was rescheduled in 1999 and placed in Schedule III of the CSA. Source: September 2007 DEA/OD/ODE
Cocaine is the principal alkaloid in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, a shrub indigenous to the Andean region of South America. Cocaine is an ester of benzoic acid and methylecgonine. Ecgonine, an amino alcohol, is structurally similar to atropine and some local anesthetics. Cocaine is a local anesthetic and a strong central nervous system stimulant which produces intense euphoria. Inhalation of the vapors of cocaine base (crack), known as "basing" or "free basing," became a popular practice in the 1980s because of its rapid onset of action (7-10 seconds), ease of repeat administration, and an unwarranted belief by users that smoking cocaine was less harmful and less likely to produce addiction than injecting cocaine. Smoking cocaine base produces a sudden and intense ‘rush’ with an equally intense ‘high’ or euphoria lasting from 2 to 20 minutes. Tolerance develops to the euphoric effects of cocaine. Physiological effects of cocaine include constricted peripheral blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased blood pressure and heart rate. Cocaine also produces restlessness, irritability, and anxiety in some users. High doses of cocaine or prolonged use can cause paranoia. Source: September 2007 DEA/OD/ODE
Oxycodone is a schedule II narcotic analgesic and is widely used in clinical medicine. It is marketed either alone as controlled release (OxyContin®) and immediate release formulations) (OxyIR®, OxyFast®), or in combination with other nonnarcotic analgesics such as aspirin (Percodan®) or acetaminophen (Percocet®). The introduction in 1996 of OxyContin®, commonly known on the street as OC, OX, Oxy, Oxycotton, Hillbilly heroin, and kicker, led to a marked escalation of its abuse as reported by drug abuse treatment centers, law enforcement personnel, and health care professionals. Although the diversion and abuse of OxyContin® appeared initially in the eastern U.S., it has now spread to the western U.S. including Alaska and Hawaii. Oxycodone-related adverse health effects increased markedly in recent years. In 2004, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved generic forms of controlled release oxycodone products for marketing. Source: September 2007 DEA/OD/ODE
For more drug information visit DEA Diversion Control website: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/index.html